This chapter is a reference document for Water and Sanitation (WatSan) technical staff in the field as well as for the headquarters staff of National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. It is also intended as a standardization guide for those who are responsible for the procurement of water and sanitation equipment.
Standard WatSan Kits
Lack of access to safe water, basic sanitation and poor hygiene practices are a major cause of disease and death. Recognizing this fact, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement assists vulnerable communities to gain access to safe water supplies and sanitation facilities while encouraging improved hygiene practices, in disaster and longer-term developmental contexts.
In long-term programs, where time and expertise are readily available, an appropriate and cost-effective WatSan response can be specifically designed to address a population's unique problems, taking into account available expertise, equipment and materials. But where urgent and often difficult emergency conditions prevail, simpler more expedient solutions are required.
The WatSan kits have been designed to provide a reliable water supply, sanitation facilities and hygiene promotion materials, primarily in response to emergency conditions such as refugee camps and disaster relief operations.
At present, there are over 40 kits covering a wide range of situations: each is designed to serve a particular purpose in addressing water and sanitation needs.
Many of these kits are included in the Water and Sanitation Emergency Response Unit, which is available from a number of National Societies, and the WatSan Disaster Response Kits pre-positioned in a number of locations globally.
The equipment is designed to be readily available, easily transported, rapidly assembled, simple to use and maintain, and to provide an adequate and safe water supply at the best cost possible. Each kit or module is completely self-contained with all the necessary items, including spare parts, tools and instructions.
The kits are designed the following general criteria:
- ˗ Planned water consumption per day: 15 litres per person.
- ˗ To provide suitable-quality drinking water for general purpose use.
- ˗ Installation by a team of semi-skilled workers, with some oversight from an experienced engineer.
- ˗ Designed for above or below ground installations, depending on site conditions.
- ˗ Operated by gravity distribution, where local conditions permit.
More detailed information about Minimum Standards in Disaster Response is available from the Sphere Project: http://www.sphereproject.org
Compatibility with other systems
The Adaptor Kit (KWATFITT02) enables the water systems to be connected to those of other agencies not employing the 'Storz' coupling system, which is the Red Cross standard.
The data sheets include an indicative budget price (FCA supplier warehouse); these are provided as an initial estimate only. The information, in terms of weights and volumes, associated with freight rates are required to complete the budget estimate.